4 filtration fields are generally distinguished according to the membrane cutoff/rejection threshold: Microfiltration (MF), Ultrafiltration (UF), Nanofiltration, (NF) and Reverse Osmosis (RO). For a given product more the membrane level of rejection is small more the pressure to apply will be important.
|field||cutoff point||Operating pressure|
|Microfiltration||0.1 to 5 µm||0.5 to 3 bars|
|Ultrafiltration||0.01 to 0.1 µm||2 to 10 bars|
|Nanofiltration||150 to 1000 Daltons||10 to 30 bars|
|reverse osmosis||30 to 150 Daltons||10 to 80 bars|
Some examples of retention according to the filtration field
TIA is involved in the development of new membrane technologies: osmotic evaporation, gas pervaporation and membrane contactors.