4 filtration fields are generally distinguished according to the membrane cutoff/rejection threshold: Microfiltration (MF), Ultrafiltration (UF), Nanofiltration, (NF) and Reverse Osmosis (RO). For a given product more the membrane level of rejection is small more the pressure to apply will be important.

field cutoff point Operating pressure
Microfiltration 0.1 to 5 µm 0.5 to 3 bars
Ultrafiltration 0.01 to 0.1 µm 2 to 10 bars
Nanofiltration 150 to 1000 Daltons 10 to 30 bars
reverse osmosis 30 to 150 Daltons 10 to 80 bars


Some examples of retention according to the filtration field

TIA is involved in the development of new membrane technologies: osmotic evaporation, gas pervaporation and membrane contactors.


Direct osmosis

Dryer, fan, air filter

Mineral microfiltration

Mineral ultrafiltration


Organic microfiltration

Organic ultrafiltration

Reverse osmosis